They really are a strange lot. For centuries they've been at war with each other, on and off. Yet they still love each other. They have a very strange relationship.
What time period is this supposed to cover?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment site is wikipedia, however it is great info. http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Rationalism+(philosophy) towards the bottom has a lot of what your looking for and it also has references which is what you need probably to be able to list them. This won't give you the easy way to 4 pages, but should be enough to get you started and there.
No, because unless you have something to rationalize there is nothing to talk about.. there is a LOT of information on how french and german people rationalize things but without a "thing" to talk about no information can be given.
at least there's a word for it....with american there's only "stupidity"....