It isn't the turbine, it is what it is connected to that generates the electricity. The turbine is just an engine.
? Im not sure but it probably depends ion the strength and size of the magnets and coils in the turbine as well. There are a few factors including the angle of the turbine itself that effect the answer Talk to a physics professor
Depends on what that turbine is made out of and the materials surrounding it. Motion on its own might not do anything relevant to electrons, but moving electrically charged/polarized ob<x>jects inside of a magnetic field can produce phenomena.
That is unknown to me, but once you begin to approach the speed of light, some remarkable things begin to happen, though I'm not entirely sure what the effect would be off hand.