:O I LOVE SKYRIM! Unfortunately, I play by the rules and have never had to deal with such treason. Your pla<x>yer, should be ashamed. Hahaha, I'm just kidding ;p
Revert to a save before that happened. Otherwise, are you playing on a console or the computer?
Well, that's a bummer..if it was on the computer you could have used the "console commands" to change their aggression level to 0. :(
Let them kill you, and the game will reset before you stole something, or go to jail, or pay the fine. Just go back and let something happen. Have your weapon put away too, they'll attack if you have your weapon drawn.
It also helps to crouch BEFORE you steal something.
You shouldn't have fled, love. It saved as you came into the town, or left the town... Now you have to go back to a save point before you stole.
Click start, and go to the load screens... NOT the save options, but the load game option.
Start over from the beginning, and DON'T STEAL IN FRONT OF PEOPLE!!!