I Am A Researcher And Watchtower Organization Founder (chercheur In French)

A Researcher is an Investigator of sorts.

An example of Six types of research studies.

The qualitativeversus quantitativeapproach to the classification of research activities classifies all research studies into one of six categories

Qualitative approachThe qualitative approach involves the collection of extensive narrative data in order to gain insights into phenomena of interest, data analysis includes the coding of the data and production of a verbal synthesis (inductive process)



  1. Historical research


  2. Qualitative research


Quantitative approachThe quantitative approaches involve the collection of numerical data in order to explain, predict, and/or control phenomena of interest, data analysis is mainly statistical (deductive process)



  1. Descriptive research


  2. Correlational research


  3. Causal-comparative research


  4. Experimental Research



Qualitative research approaches

Historical research and qualitative research are the two types of research classified as qualitative research approaches.

Historical researchis involved with the study of past events. We will go into much more detail about historical research in Lesson 8.

The following are some examples of historical research studies mentioned by Gay.



  1. Factors leading to the development and growth of cooperative learning.


  2. Effects of decisions of the United States Supreme Court on Americal Education.


  3. Trends in reading instruction, 1940-1945.


Qualitative research, also referred to as ethnographic research, is involved in the study of current events rather than past events. It involves the collection of extensive narrative data (non-numerical data) on many variables over an extended period of time in a naturalistic setting. Participant observation, where the researcher lives with the subjects being observed is frequently used in qualitative research. Case studies are also used in qualitative research. We will discuss qualitative research in more detail in lesson 9.

Some examples of qualitative studies mention by Gay are:



  1. A case study of parental involvement at a magnet school.


  2. A multicase study of students who excel despite nonfacilitating environments.


  3. The teacher as researcher: Improving students' writing skills.



Quantitative research approaches

Descriptive researchinvolves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or answer questions regarding the subjects of the study. In contrast with the qualitative approach the data are numerical. The data are typically collected through a questionnaire, an interview, or through observation.

In descriptive research, the investigator reports the numerical results for one or more variables on the subjects of the study. We will discuss descriptive research in more detail in Lesson 10.

Some examples of descriptive research studies mentioned by Gay are:



  1. How do second-grade teachers spend their time?


  2. How will citizens of Yorktown vote in the next election?


  3. How do parents feel about a 12-month school year?


Correlational researchattempts to determine whether and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable (numerical) variables. However, it is important to remember that just because their is a significant relationship between two variables it does not follow that one variable causes the other. When two variables are correlated you can use the relationship to predict the value on one variable for a subject if you know that subject's value on the other variable. Correlation implies prediction but not causation. The investigator frequently uses the correlation coefficient to report the results of correlational research.

We will study correlational research in more detail in lesson 11. Some examples of correlational research mentioned by Gay are:



  1. The relationship between intelligence and self-esteem.


  2. The relationship between anxiety and achievement.


  3. The use of an aptitude test to predict success in an algebra course.


Causal-comparative researchattempts to establish cause-effect relationships among the variables of the study. The attempt is to establish that values of the independent variable have a significant effect on the dependent variable. This type of research usually involves group comparisons. The groups in the study make up the values of the independent variable, for example gender (male versus female), preschool attendance versus no preschool attendance, or children with a working mother versus children without a working mother. These could be the independent variables for the sample studies listed below. However, in causal-comparative research the independent variable is not under the experimenters control, that is, the experimenter can't randomly assign the subjects to a gender classification (male or female) but has to take the values of the independent variable as they come. The dependent variable in a study is the outcome variable.

We will study causal-comparative research in more detail in lesson 12. Here are some examples of causal-comparative research studies mentioned by Gay.



  1. The effect of preschool attendance on social maturity at the end of the first grade.


  2. The effect of having a working mother on school absenteeism.


  3. The effect of sex (gender) on algebra achievement.


Experimental researchlike causal-comparative research attempts to establish cause-effect relationship among the groups of subjects that make up the independent variable of the study, but in the case of experimental research, the cause (the independent variable) is under the control of the experimenter. That is, the experimenter can randomly assign subjects to the groups that make up the independent variable in the study. In the typical experimental research design the experimenter randomly assigns subjects to the groups or conditions that constitute the independent variable of the study and then measures the effect this group membership has on another variable, i.e. the dependent variable of the study.

We will look at experimental research in much greater detail in lesson 13. The following are some examples of experimental research mentioned by Gay.



  1. The comparative effectiveness of personalized instruction versus traditional instruction on computational skill.


  2. The effect of self-paced instruction on self-concept.


  3. The effect of positive reinforcement on attitude toward school.



Classifying the six types of research

Now that we have looked at the six types of educational research. Let's see if we can classify some research studies. Click on the button below to see a diagram for classifying the six types of educational research. After looking at the diagram click on the previous page button of your browser to return to this page. Then go ahead and do the classification activity below.


Exercise on classifying research by type

As an exercise, classify each of the following as primarily:



  • A. Historical Research,


  • B. Qualitative Research,


  • C. Descriptive Research,


  • D. Correlational Research,


  • E. Causal-comparative Research, or


  • F. Experimental Research,



Exercise on classifying research by type

As an exercise, classify each of the following as primarily:



  • A. Historical Research,


  • B. Qualitative Research,


  • C. Descriptive Research,


  • D. Correlational Research,


  • E. Causal-comparative Research, or


  • F. Experimental Research,


  • Relationship between creativity and achievement.


  • Prediction of success in physics based on a physics aptitude test.


  • Effect of birth order on academic achevement.


  • Self-esteem of males versus females.


  • Attitudes of parents toward lowering the mandatory school attendance age from 16 to 14 years of age.


  • The ethnography of teacher-parent conferences?


  • Opinions of principals regarding decentralization of decision-making.


  • Effects of assertive discipline on the behavior of hyperactive children.


  • Relationship between time to run the 100-yard dash and high jumping performance.


  • Effectiveness of daily homework with respect to achievement in Algebra I


And the answers are:



  1. D. Correlational Research


  2. D. Correlational Research


  3. E. Causal-comparative Research


  4. E. Causal-comparative Research


  5. C. Descriptive Research


  6. B. Qualitative Research


  7. C. Descriptive Research


  8. F. Experimental Research


  9. D. Correlational Research


  10. F. Experimental Research


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Mar 15, 2010